Take a Florida Defensive Driving Course

Take the Florida Defensive Driving Course online to dismiss a ticket and earn an insurance discount. The course is approved by the Florida DMV.

Written by DriveSafeToday Updated March 12, 2021
15m read
DriveSafeToday.com is the most trusted online driving school in the nation.

Florida Defensive Driving Course

When it comes to keeping yourself and your family safe you want to make sure that you’re doing everything you can, right? And that includes making sure that you’re driving as safely as possible to keep them from getting hurt in an accident. One of the best things that you can do on that front is to take a defensive driving course. But just which Florida defensive driving course should you take? We’re going to talk about the top option for you to improve your safety on the road. 

 

What is Defensive Driving?

Before we get into what you should be doing, let’s take a little closer look at what defensive driving even means. It’s actually all about paying attention to what’s going on around you. When you took your beginning driving course to get your license you learned how to follow the rules of the road with the assumption that everyone else on the road was going to do the same. But that’s not always the case. In fact, there are a lot of situations where other people may not follow the rules of road for any reason. If you know defensive driving, however, you can still avoid an accident in many of those cases. 

 

Why a Defensive Driving Course?

So, just why would you take this type of course? You should take a defensive driving course to improve your overall driving safety and that of everyone else with you or on the road alongside you. It can help decrease the likelihood that you will be involved in an accident by making sure that you’re always aware of the things that are happening around you, wherever you go and whatever another driver may do. But there are more reasons to consider it as well.

One is that you could reduce your fines and even points on your license if you complete a defensive driving course. If you take a Florida defensive driving course that is fully recognized by the DHSMV you may be able to avoid the points or fines associated with certain driving infractions, which can save you a whole lot of money and troubles along the way. But that’s not the only thing that you could find with this one course.

You could also see a discount on your car insurance as a result of taking this type of course. That’s because your insurance company will recognize that you are less likely to get into an accident if you have defensive driving training. That’s going to mean a whole lot of extra money in your pocket that you don’t have to spend on those insurance costs each month. Plus you’re going to be safer when you drive so you’re going to get a whole lot of benefits rolled into one. 

 

All About the Florida Defensive Driving Course

If you’re ready to take a defensive driving course the one you’ll want to look at is the Basic Driver Improvement Course. This course is approved by the Florida DHSMV and could provide you with all of the benefits that we’ve mentioned above, including avoiding points on your license, reducing court fines or fees or even getting a discount on your car insurance. In fact, there are a number of different benefits you can get from this four hour class.

Another great benefit here is that you can take the entire course online at your own pace. It consists of streaming videos, text and audio so you can learn in a way that works best for you. Plus, you get to take the exam as many times as you need to in order to pass. Once you do, we’ll take care of notifying the DMV and you can immediately print out a certificate for your own records or your insurance company. 

 

Intermediate Driver Improvement

Now, if you need to take an additional course to fulfill court requirements you can take the intermediate course. This one will actually go even more in-depth about everything you need to know to be a safe and effective driver. You’ll learn additional skills that will provide you with even further protections and make sure that you are on your way to become a great driver, even after tickets. 

When you take this course it will be an eight hour course, completely online. You can take it at your own pace and schedule and you’ll have everything through text, video and audio. This makes it easier to follow along and understand the material before it’s time to take the exam. Once you do take the exam you can retake it as many times as you need to to pass. Then we’ll let the DMV know that you’re done and you get a certificate to download instantly. 

 

Other Available Courses

If you need additional help with any other driving courses in the state of Florida you can check out our offerings for those as well. You’ll be able to find courses that include the DHSMV permit exam and traffic law and substance abuse education. If you need either of these programs the courses are available at a reasonable fee for anyone. Even better, they are entirely online and you’ll get a certificate as soon as you pass. This makes it easy for you to fulfill your requirements and get to driving for yourself in no time. 

 

What You Need to Do

If you need to take a Florida defensive driving course you want to take one that’s going to be quick and easy for you to complete on your own schedule. And you want to make sure that it’s going to qualify for everything that you need. That’s where we can help. All you need to do is click on the Get Started button to choose the basic or intermediate driving program to get started. You’ll be able to reap the benefits of your class in no time, and feel like a more confident and safe driver whenever you get out on the road. 

Persons Killed, by STATE and Highest Driver Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in Crash - State : Florida, Year : 2018


BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Of The Driver
State BAC .00 BAC .01-.07 BAC .08+ BAC .01+ Total Drivers Involved In Fatal Crashes
State Total Drivers Involved In Fatal Crashes
BAC .00 BAC .01-.07 BAC .08+ BAC .01+
Alabama 654 (69 %) 49 (5 %) 246 (26 %) 295 (31 %) 953 (100 %)
Alaska 44 (55 %) 7 (9 %) 29 (36 %) 36 (45 %) 80 (100 %)
Arizona 655 (65 %) 50 (5 %) 285 (28 %) 334 (33 %) 1,010 (100 %)
Arkansas 343 (66 %) 38 (7 %) 134 (26 %) 172 (33 %) 516 (100 %)
California 2,322 (65 %) 166 (5 %) 1,069 (30 %) 1,235 (35 %) 3,563 (100 %)
Colorado 411 (65 %) 31 (5 %) 188 (30 %) 219 (35 %) 632 (100 %)
Connecticut 162 (55 %) 17 (6 %) 115 (39 %) 132 (45 %) 294 (100 %)
Delaware 76 (68 %) 8 (7 %) 28 (25 %) 35 (32 %) 111 (100 %)
District of Columbia 21 (66 %) 2 (5 %) 9 (29 %) 11 (34 %) 31 (100 %)
Florida 2,175 (69 %) 135 (4 %) 814 (26 %) 950 (30 %) 3,133 (100 %)
Georgia 1,054 (70 %) 72 (5 %) 375 (25 %) 447 (30 %) 1,504 (100 %)
Hawaii 71 (61 %) 10 (9 %) 35 (30 %) 45 (38 %) 117 (100 %)
Idaho 165 (72 %) 8 (4 %) 58 (25 %) 66 (28 %) 231 (100 %)
Illinois 653 (63 %) 66 (6 %) 309 (30 %) 375 (36 %) 1,031 (100 %)
Indiana 587 (68 %) 39 (5 %) 227 (26 %) 266 (31 %) 858 (100 %)
Iowa 218 (68 %) 13 (4 %) 85 (27 %) 98 (31 %) 318 (100 %)
Kansas 306 (76 %) 9 (2 %) 88 (22 %) 96 (24 %) 404 (100 %)
Kentucky 552 (76 %) 31 (4 %) 137 (19 %) 169 (23 %) 724 (100 %)
Louisiana 516 (67 %) 35 (5 %) 216 (28 %) 251 (33 %) 768 (100 %)
Maine 88 (64 %) 8 (6 %) 42 (30 %) 49 (36 %) 137 (100 %)
Maryland 346 (69 %) 32 (6 %) 122 (24 %) 154 (31 %) 501 (100 %)
Massachusetts 214 (59 %) 24 (7 %) 120 (33 %) 145 (40 %) 360 (100 %)
Michigan 649 (67 %) 56 (6 %) 267 (27 %) 323 (33 %) 974 (100 %)
Minnesota 251 (66 %) 20 (5 %) 105 (28 %) 126 (33 %) 381 (100 %)
Mississippi 466 (70 %) 35 (5 %) 163 (25 %) 198 (30 %) 664 (100 %)
Missouri 639 (69 %) 39 (4 %) 240 (26 %) 279 (30 %) 921 (100 %)
Montana 95 (52 %) 8 (4 %) 79 (43 %) 87 (48 %) 182 (100 %)
Nebraska 152 (66 %) 12 (5 %) 66 (29 %) 78 (34 %) 230 (100 %)
Nevada 220 (67 %) 22 (7 %) 87 (26 %) 110 (33 %) 330 (100 %)
New Hampshire 92 (63 %) 7 (5 %) 48 (33 %) 55 (37 %) 147 (100 %)
New Jersey 404 (72 %) 35 (6 %) 125 (22 %) 159 (28 %) 564 (100 %)
New Mexico 251 (64 %) 30 (8 %) 108 (28 %) 138 (35 %) 391 (100 %)
New York 580 (61 %) 53 (6 %) 307 (33 %) 361 (38 %) 943 (100 %)
North Carolina 952 (66 %) 61 (4 %) 421 (29 %) 482 (34 %) 1,437 (100 %)
North Dakota 72 (68 %) 4 (4 %) 29 (27 %) 33 (32 %) 105 (100 %)
Ohio 724 (68 %) 45 (4 %) 294 (28 %) 340 (32 %) 1,068 (100 %)
Oklahoma 477 (73 %) 33 (5 %) 145 (22 %) 179 (27 %) 655 (100 %)
Oregon 321 (63 %) 31 (6 %) 153 (30 %) 184 (36 %) 506 (100 %)
Pennsylvania 801 (67 %) 53 (4 %) 334 (28 %) 387 (33 %) 1,190 (100 %)
Rhode Island 34 (57 %) 5 (8 %) 20 (34 %) 25 (43 %) 59 (100 %)
South Carolina 702 (68 %) 44 (4 %) 291 (28 %) 335 (32 %) 1,037 (100 %)
South Dakota 80 (62 %) 5 (4 %) 45 (35 %) 50 (38 %) 130 (100 %)
Tennessee 752 (72 %) 46 (4 %) 243 (23 %) 289 (28 %) 1,041 (100 %)
Texas 1,965 (54 %) 235 (6 %) 1,439 (40 %) 1,673 (46 %) 3,642 (100 %)
Utah 190 (73 %) 9 (3 %) 61 (23 %) 70 (27 %) 260 (100 %)
Vermont 45 (66 %) 8 (12 %) 15 (23 %) 23 (34 %) 68 (100 %)
Virginia 534 (65 %) 45 (6 %) 240 (29 %) 285 (35 %) 820 (100 %)
Washington 351 (64 %) 30 (5 %) 166 (30 %) 195 (36 %) 546 (100 %)
West Virginia 223 (76 %) 14 (5 %) 57 (19 %) 71 (24 %) 294 (100 %)
Wisconsin 353 (60 %) 36 (6 %) 199 (34 %) 235 (40 %) 588 (100 %)
Wyoming 72 (64 %) 6 (5 %) 34 (30 %) 40 (36 %) 111 (100 %)
USA 24,075 (66 %) 1,878 (5 %) 10,511 (29 %) 12,389 (34 %) 36,560 (100 %)
Show more
Alabama 654 (69 %)
49 (5 %) 246 (26 %) 295 (31 %) 953 (100 %)
Alaska 44 (55 %)
7 (9 %) 29 (36 %) 36 (45 %) 80 (100 %)
Arizona 655 (65 %)
50 (5 %) 285 (28 %) 334 (33 %) 1,010 (100 %)
Arkansas 343 (66 %)
38 (7 %) 134 (26 %) 172 (33 %) 516 (100 %)
California 2,322 (65 %)
166 (5 %) 1,069 (30 %) 1,235 (35 %) 3,563 (100 %)
Colorado 411 (65 %)
31 (5 %) 188 (30 %) 219 (35 %) 632 (100 %)
Connecticut 162 (55 %)
17 (6 %) 115 (39 %) 132 (45 %) 294 (100 %)
Delaware 76 (68 %)
8 (7 %) 28 (25 %) 35 (32 %) 111 (100 %)
District of Columbia 21 (66 %)
2 (5 %) 9 (29 %) 11 (34 %) 31 (100 %)
Florida 2,175 (69 %)
135 (4 %) 814 (26 %) 950 (30 %) 3,133 (100 %)
Georgia 1,054 (70 %)
72 (5 %) 375 (25 %) 447 (30 %) 1,504 (100 %)
Hawaii 71 (61 %)
10 (9 %) 35 (30 %) 45 (38 %) 117 (100 %)
Idaho 165 (72 %)
8 (4 %) 58 (25 %) 66 (28 %) 231 (100 %)
Illinois 653 (63 %)
66 (6 %) 309 (30 %) 375 (36 %) 1,031 (100 %)
Indiana 587 (68 %)
39 (5 %) 227 (26 %) 266 (31 %) 858 (100 %)
Iowa 218 (68 %)
13 (4 %) 85 (27 %) 98 (31 %) 318 (100 %)
Kansas 306 (76 %)
9 (2 %) 88 (22 %) 96 (24 %) 404 (100 %)
Kentucky 552 (76 %)
31 (4 %) 137 (19 %) 169 (23 %) 724 (100 %)
Louisiana 516 (67 %)
35 (5 %) 216 (28 %) 251 (33 %) 768 (100 %)
Maine 88 (64 %)
8 (6 %) 42 (30 %) 49 (36 %) 137 (100 %)
Maryland 346 (69 %)
32 (6 %) 122 (24 %) 154 (31 %) 501 (100 %)
Massachusetts 214 (59 %)
24 (7 %) 120 (33 %) 145 (40 %) 360 (100 %)
Michigan 649 (67 %)
56 (6 %) 267 (27 %) 323 (33 %) 974 (100 %)
Minnesota 251 (66 %)
20 (5 %) 105 (28 %) 126 (33 %) 381 (100 %)
Mississippi 466 (70 %)
35 (5 %) 163 (25 %) 198 (30 %) 664 (100 %)
Missouri 639 (69 %)
39 (4 %) 240 (26 %) 279 (30 %) 921 (100 %)
Montana 95 (52 %)
8 (4 %) 79 (43 %) 87 (48 %) 182 (100 %)
Nebraska 152 (66 %)
12 (5 %) 66 (29 %) 78 (34 %) 230 (100 %)
Nevada 220 (67 %)
22 (7 %) 87 (26 %) 110 (33 %) 330 (100 %)
New Hampshire 92 (63 %)
7 (5 %) 48 (33 %) 55 (37 %) 147 (100 %)
New Jersey 404 (72 %)
35 (6 %) 125 (22 %) 159 (28 %) 564 (100 %)
New Mexico 251 (64 %)
30 (8 %) 108 (28 %) 138 (35 %) 391 (100 %)
New York 580 (61 %)
53 (6 %) 307 (33 %) 361 (38 %) 943 (100 %)
North Carolina 952 (66 %)
61 (4 %) 421 (29 %) 482 (34 %) 1,437 (100 %)
North Dakota 72 (68 %)
4 (4 %) 29 (27 %) 33 (32 %) 105 (100 %)
Ohio 724 (68 %)
45 (4 %) 294 (28 %) 340 (32 %) 1,068 (100 %)
Oklahoma 477 (73 %)
33 (5 %) 145 (22 %) 179 (27 %) 655 (100 %)
Oregon 321 (63 %)
31 (6 %) 153 (30 %) 184 (36 %) 506 (100 %)
Pennsylvania 801 (67 %)
53 (4 %) 334 (28 %) 387 (33 %) 1,190 (100 %)
Rhode Island 34 (57 %)
5 (8 %) 20 (34 %) 25 (43 %) 59 (100 %)
South Carolina 702 (68 %)
44 (4 %) 291 (28 %) 335 (32 %) 1,037 (100 %)
South Dakota 80 (62 %)
5 (4 %) 45 (35 %) 50 (38 %) 130 (100 %)
Tennessee 752 (72 %)
46 (4 %) 243 (23 %) 289 (28 %) 1,041 (100 %)
Texas 1,965 (54 %)
235 (6 %) 1,439 (40 %) 1,673 (46 %) 3,642 (100 %)
Utah 190 (73 %)
9 (3 %) 61 (23 %) 70 (27 %) 260 (100 %)
Vermont 45 (66 %)
8 (12 %) 15 (23 %) 23 (34 %) 68 (100 %)
Virginia 534 (65 %)
45 (6 %) 240 (29 %) 285 (35 %) 820 (100 %)
Washington 351 (64 %)
30 (5 %) 166 (30 %) 195 (36 %) 546 (100 %)
West Virginia 223 (76 %)
14 (5 %) 57 (19 %) 71 (24 %) 294 (100 %)
Wisconsin 353 (60 %)
36 (6 %) 199 (34 %) 235 (40 %) 588 (100 %)
Wyoming 72 (64 %)
6 (5 %) 34 (30 %) 40 (36 %) 111 (100 %)
USA 24,075 (66 %)
1,878 (5 %) 10,511 (29 %) 12,389 (34 %) 36,560 (100 %)
Show more
Note: NHTSA estimates alcohol involvement when alcohol test results are unknown. Total includes fatalities in crashes in which there was no driver or motorcycle rider present.

Persons Killed, by COUNTY and Highest Driver Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in Crash - State : Florida, Year : 2018


Highest Driver Blood Alcohol Concentration in Crash
County BAC .00 BAC .01-.07 BAC .08+ BAC .01+ Total Drivers Involved In Fatal Crashes
County Total Drivers Involved In Fatal Crashes
BAC .00 BAC .01-.07 BAC .08+ BAC .01+
Blank NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
NOT APPLICABLE (000) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
ALACHUA (1) 41 (81 %) 1 (1 %) 9 (18 %) 10 (19 %) 51 (100 %)
BAKER (3) 3 (54 %) NA (NA %) 2 (46 %) 2 (46 %) 5 (100 %)
BAY (5) 20 (75 %) 1 (2 %) 6 (23 %) 7 (25 %) 26 (100 %)
BRADFORD (7) 5 (56 %) 3 (37 %) 1 (8 %) 4 (44 %) 9 (100 %)
BREVARD (9) 61 (71 %) 5 (6 %) 19 (23 %) 24 (29 %) 85 (100 %)
BROWARD (11) 171 (72 %) 7 (3 %) 58 (25 %) 65 (27 %) 237 (100 %)
CALHOUN (13) 6 (79 %) NA (NA %) 2 (21 %) 2 (21 %) 8 (100 %)
CHARLOTTE (15) 19 (69 %) 2 (6 %) 6 (22 %) 7 (27 %) 27 (100 %)
CITRUS (17) 25 (68 %) 3 (9 %) 9 (24 %) 12 (32 %) 37 (100 %)
CLAY (19) 13 (69 %) NA (1 %) 6 (31 %) 6 (31 %) 19 (100 %)
COLLIER (21) 25 (56 %) 3 (8 %) 16 (36 %) 19 (44 %) 44 (100 %)
COLUMBIA (23) 14 (69 %) 2 (8 %) 5 (23 %) 7 (31 %) 21 (100 %)
DE SOTO (27) 8 (51 %) NA (3 %) 7 (46 %) 7 (49 %) 15 (100 %)
DIXIE (29) 1 (50 %) NA (NA %) 1 (50 %) 1 (50 %) 2 (100 %)
DUVAL (31) 89 (62 %) 8 (6 %) 45 (31 %) 53 (37 %) 143 (100 %)
ESCAMBIA (33) 45 (68 %) 2 (3 %) 19 (28 %) 21 (32 %) 66 (100 %)
FLAGLER (35) 12 (80 %) NA (NA %) 3 (20 %) 3 (20 %) 15 (100 %)
FRANKLIN (37) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) 1 (100 %) 1 (100 %) 1 (100 %)
GADSDEN (39) 8 (68 %) 1 (8 %) 3 (23 %) 4 (32 %) 12 (100 %)
GILCHRIST (41) 6 (49 %) 2 (17 %) 4 (34 %) 6 (51 %) 12 (100 %)
GLADES (43) 6 (52 %) 2 (15 %) 4 (34 %) 5 (48 %) 11 (100 %)
GULF (45) 3 (70 %) NA (3 %) 1 (28 %) 1 (30 %) 4 (100 %)
HAMILTON (47) 2 (67 %) 1 (33 %) NA (NA %) 1 (33 %) 3 (100 %)
HARDEE (49) 4 (53 %) 1 (13 %) 3 (35 %) 4 (48 %) 8 (100 %)
HENDRY (51) 10 (72 %) NA (1 %) 4 (26 %) 4 (28 %) 14 (100 %)
HERNANDO (53) 25 (79 %) 1 (3 %) 6 (18 %) 6 (21 %) 31 (100 %)
HIGHLANDS (55) 16 (78 %) 1 (3 %) 4 (20 %) 4 (22 %) 20 (100 %)
HILLSBOROUGH (57) 128 (73 %) 9 (5 %) 39 (22 %) 48 (27 %) 176 (100 %)
HOLMES (59) 4 (72 %) NA (NA %) 1 (28 %) 1 (28 %) 5 (100 %)
INDIAN RIVER (61) 23 (71 %) 1 (3 %) 8 (26 %) 9 (29 %) 32 (100 %)
JACKSON (63) 15 (98 %) NA (NA %) NA (2 %) NA (2 %) 15 (100 %)
JEFFERSON (65) 7 (96 %) NA (1 %) NA (3 %) NA (4 %) 7 (100 %)
LAFAYETTE (67) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
LAKE (69) 40 (63 %) 3 (5 %) 19 (30 %) 22 (35 %) 63 (100 %)
LEE (71) 61 (65 %) 5 (5 %) 29 (30 %) 33 (35 %) 94 (100 %)
LEON (73) 20 (67 %) 1 (2 %) 9 (31 %) 10 (33 %) 30 (100 %)
LEVY (75) 11 (57 %) NA (2 %) 8 (41 %) 8 (43 %) 19 (100 %)
LIBERTY (77) 1 (50 %) NA (NA %) 1 (50 %) 1 (50 %) 2 (100 %)
MADISON (79) 5 (83 %) NA (NA %) 1 (17 %) 1 (17 %) 6 (100 %)
MANATEE (81) 55 (73 %) 5 (7 %) 16 (21 %) 20 (27 %) 75 (100 %)
MARION (83) 49 (59 %) 3 (3 %) 32 (38 %) 35 (41 %) 84 (100 %)
MARTIN (85) 18 (77 %) 1 (4 %) 4 (18 %) 5 (23 %) 23 (100 %)
MIAMI_DADE(86) 216 (74 %) 10 (3 %) 65 (22 %) 75 (25 %) 293 (100 %)
MONROE (87) 14 (71 %) 2 (10 %) 4 (19 %) 6 (29 %) 20 (100 %)
NASSAU (89) 9 (50 %) 1 (3 %) 8 (47 %) 9 (50 %) 18 (100 %)
OKALOOSA (91) 15 (57 %) 1 (5 %) 10 (38 %) 12 (43 %) 27 (100 %)
OKEECHOBEE (93) 11 (70 %) 1 (7 %) 4 (23 %) 5 (30 %) 15 (100 %)
ORANGE (95) 136 (77 %) 5 (3 %) 36 (21 %) 41 (23 %) 177 (100 %)
OSCEOLA (97) 44 (66 %) 1 (2 %) 21 (32 %) 22 (34 %) 66 (100 %)
PALM BEACH (99) 122 (67 %) 7 (4 %) 52 (29 %) 59 (32 %) 182 (100 %)
PASCO (101) 72 (72 %) 4 (4 %) 24 (24 %) 28 (28 %) 99 (100 %)
PINELLAS (103) 91 (70 %) 6 (5 %) 33 (25 %) 39 (30 %) 130 (100 %)
POLK (105) 94 (76 %) 1 (1 %) 29 (23 %) 29 (24 %) 123 (100 %)
PUTNAM (107) 19 (51 %) 2 (4 %) 17 (45 %) 19 (49 %) 38 (100 %)
ST JOHNS (109) 24 (69 %) 2 (7 %) 8 (24 %) 11 (31 %) 34 (100 %)
ST LUCIE (111) 23 (56 %) 3 (8 %) 15 (37 %) 18 (44 %) 41 (100 %)
SANTA ROSA (113) 17 (74 %) 1 (2 %) 6 (24 %) 6 (26 %) 23 (100 %)
SARASOTA (115) 32 (63 %) 4 (8 %) 15 (29 %) 19 (37 %) 51 (100 %)
SEMINOLE (117) 26 (72 %) 1 (3 %) 9 (25 %) 10 (28 %) 36 (100 %)
SUMTER (119) 20 (78 %) 2 (6 %) 4 (16 %) 6 (22 %) 25 (100 %)
SUWANNEE (121) 11 (54 %) 3 (15 %) 6 (31 %) 9 (46 %) 20 (100 %)
TAYLOR (123) 4 (62 %) 1 (17 %) 1 (22 %) 2 (38 %) 6 (100 %)
UNION (125) 1 (47 %) NA (NA %) 2 (53 %) 2 (53 %) 3 (100 %)
VOLUSIA (127) 77 (73 %) 6 (5 %) 21 (20 %) 27 (25 %) 106 (100 %)
WAKULLA (129) 3 (29 %) NA (1 %) 6 (70 %) 6 (71 %) 9 (100 %)
WALTON (131) 18 (75 %) NA (1 %) 6 (24 %) 6 (25 %) 24 (100 %)
WASHINGTON (133) 6 (60 %) NA (3 %) 4 (37 %) 4 (40 %) 10 (100 %)
OTHER (997) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
Not Reported NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
UNKNOWN (999) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
Total 2,175 (69 %) 135 (4 %) 814 (26 %) 950 (30 %) 3,133 (100 %)
Show more
Blank NA (NA %)
NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
NOT APPLICABLE (000) NA (NA %)
NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
ALACHUA (1) 41 (81 %)
1 (1 %) 9 (18 %) 10 (19 %) 51 (100 %)
BAKER (3) 3 (54 %)
NA (NA %) 2 (46 %) 2 (46 %) 5 (100 %)
BAY (5) 20 (75 %)
1 (2 %) 6 (23 %) 7 (25 %) 26 (100 %)
BRADFORD (7) 5 (56 %)
3 (37 %) 1 (8 %) 4 (44 %) 9 (100 %)
BREVARD (9) 61 (71 %)
5 (6 %) 19 (23 %) 24 (29 %) 85 (100 %)
BROWARD (11) 171 (72 %)
7 (3 %) 58 (25 %) 65 (27 %) 237 (100 %)
CALHOUN (13) 6 (79 %)
NA (NA %) 2 (21 %) 2 (21 %) 8 (100 %)
CHARLOTTE (15) 19 (69 %)
2 (6 %) 6 (22 %) 7 (27 %) 27 (100 %)
CITRUS (17) 25 (68 %)
3 (9 %) 9 (24 %) 12 (32 %) 37 (100 %)
CLAY (19) 13 (69 %)
NA (1 %) 6 (31 %) 6 (31 %) 19 (100 %)
COLLIER (21) 25 (56 %)
3 (8 %) 16 (36 %) 19 (44 %) 44 (100 %)
COLUMBIA (23) 14 (69 %)
2 (8 %) 5 (23 %) 7 (31 %) 21 (100 %)
DE SOTO (27) 8 (51 %)
NA (3 %) 7 (46 %) 7 (49 %) 15 (100 %)
DIXIE (29) 1 (50 %)
NA (NA %) 1 (50 %) 1 (50 %) 2 (100 %)
DUVAL (31) 89 (62 %)
8 (6 %) 45 (31 %) 53 (37 %) 143 (100 %)
ESCAMBIA (33) 45 (68 %)
2 (3 %) 19 (28 %) 21 (32 %) 66 (100 %)
FLAGLER (35) 12 (80 %)
NA (NA %) 3 (20 %) 3 (20 %) 15 (100 %)
FRANKLIN (37) NA (NA %)
NA (NA %) 1 (100 %) 1 (100 %) 1 (100 %)
GADSDEN (39) 8 (68 %)
1 (8 %) 3 (23 %) 4 (32 %) 12 (100 %)
GILCHRIST (41) 6 (49 %)
2 (17 %) 4 (34 %) 6 (51 %) 12 (100 %)
GLADES (43) 6 (52 %)
2 (15 %) 4 (34 %) 5 (48 %) 11 (100 %)
GULF (45) 3 (70 %)
NA (3 %) 1 (28 %) 1 (30 %) 4 (100 %)
HAMILTON (47) 2 (67 %)
1 (33 %) NA (NA %) 1 (33 %) 3 (100 %)
HARDEE (49) 4 (53 %)
1 (13 %) 3 (35 %) 4 (48 %) 8 (100 %)
HENDRY (51) 10 (72 %)
NA (1 %) 4 (26 %) 4 (28 %) 14 (100 %)
HERNANDO (53) 25 (79 %)
1 (3 %) 6 (18 %) 6 (21 %) 31 (100 %)
HIGHLANDS (55) 16 (78 %)
1 (3 %) 4 (20 %) 4 (22 %) 20 (100 %)
HILLSBOROUGH (57) 128 (73 %)
9 (5 %) 39 (22 %) 48 (27 %) 176 (100 %)
HOLMES (59) 4 (72 %)
NA (NA %) 1 (28 %) 1 (28 %) 5 (100 %)
INDIAN RIVER (61) 23 (71 %)
1 (3 %) 8 (26 %) 9 (29 %) 32 (100 %)
JACKSON (63) 15 (98 %)
NA (NA %) NA (2 %) NA (2 %) 15 (100 %)
JEFFERSON (65) 7 (96 %)
NA (1 %) NA (3 %) NA (4 %) 7 (100 %)
LAFAYETTE (67) NA (NA %)
NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
LAKE (69) 40 (63 %)
3 (5 %) 19 (30 %) 22 (35 %) 63 (100 %)
LEE (71) 61 (65 %)
5 (5 %) 29 (30 %) 33 (35 %) 94 (100 %)
LEON (73) 20 (67 %)
1 (2 %) 9 (31 %) 10 (33 %) 30 (100 %)
LEVY (75) 11 (57 %)
NA (2 %) 8 (41 %) 8 (43 %) 19 (100 %)
LIBERTY (77) 1 (50 %)
NA (NA %) 1 (50 %) 1 (50 %) 2 (100 %)
MADISON (79) 5 (83 %)
NA (NA %) 1 (17 %) 1 (17 %) 6 (100 %)
MANATEE (81) 55 (73 %)
5 (7 %) 16 (21 %) 20 (27 %) 75 (100 %)
MARION (83) 49 (59 %)
3 (3 %) 32 (38 %) 35 (41 %) 84 (100 %)
MARTIN (85) 18 (77 %)
1 (4 %) 4 (18 %) 5 (23 %) 23 (100 %)
MIAMI_DADE(86) 216 (74 %)
10 (3 %) 65 (22 %) 75 (25 %) 293 (100 %)
MONROE (87) 14 (71 %)
2 (10 %) 4 (19 %) 6 (29 %) 20 (100 %)
NASSAU (89) 9 (50 %)
1 (3 %) 8 (47 %) 9 (50 %) 18 (100 %)
OKALOOSA (91) 15 (57 %)
1 (5 %) 10 (38 %) 12 (43 %) 27 (100 %)
OKEECHOBEE (93) 11 (70 %)
1 (7 %) 4 (23 %) 5 (30 %) 15 (100 %)
ORANGE (95) 136 (77 %)
5 (3 %) 36 (21 %) 41 (23 %) 177 (100 %)
OSCEOLA (97) 44 (66 %)
1 (2 %) 21 (32 %) 22 (34 %) 66 (100 %)
PALM BEACH (99) 122 (67 %)
7 (4 %) 52 (29 %) 59 (32 %) 182 (100 %)
PASCO (101) 72 (72 %)
4 (4 %) 24 (24 %) 28 (28 %) 99 (100 %)
PINELLAS (103) 91 (70 %)
6 (5 %) 33 (25 %) 39 (30 %) 130 (100 %)
POLK (105) 94 (76 %)
1 (1 %) 29 (23 %) 29 (24 %) 123 (100 %)
PUTNAM (107) 19 (51 %)
2 (4 %) 17 (45 %) 19 (49 %) 38 (100 %)
ST JOHNS (109) 24 (69 %)
2 (7 %) 8 (24 %) 11 (31 %) 34 (100 %)
ST LUCIE (111) 23 (56 %)
3 (8 %) 15 (37 %) 18 (44 %) 41 (100 %)
SANTA ROSA (113) 17 (74 %)
1 (2 %) 6 (24 %) 6 (26 %) 23 (100 %)
SARASOTA (115) 32 (63 %)
4 (8 %) 15 (29 %) 19 (37 %) 51 (100 %)
SEMINOLE (117) 26 (72 %)
1 (3 %) 9 (25 %) 10 (28 %) 36 (100 %)
SUMTER (119) 20 (78 %)
2 (6 %) 4 (16 %) 6 (22 %) 25 (100 %)
SUWANNEE (121) 11 (54 %)
3 (15 %) 6 (31 %) 9 (46 %) 20 (100 %)
TAYLOR (123) 4 (62 %)
1 (17 %) 1 (22 %) 2 (38 %) 6 (100 %)
UNION (125) 1 (47 %)
NA (NA %) 2 (53 %) 2 (53 %) 3 (100 %)
VOLUSIA (127) 77 (73 %)
6 (5 %) 21 (20 %) 27 (25 %) 106 (100 %)
WAKULLA (129) 3 (29 %)
NA (1 %) 6 (70 %) 6 (71 %) 9 (100 %)
WALTON (131) 18 (75 %)
NA (1 %) 6 (24 %) 6 (25 %) 24 (100 %)
WASHINGTON (133) 6 (60 %)
NA (3 %) 4 (37 %) 4 (40 %) 10 (100 %)
OTHER (997) NA (NA %)
NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
Not Reported NA (NA %)
NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
UNKNOWN (999) NA (NA %)
NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %) NA (NA %)
Total 2,175 (69 %)
135 (4 %) 814 (26 %) 950 (30 %) 3,133 (100 %)
Show more
Note: NHTSA estimates alcohol involvement when alcohol test results are unknown. Total includes fatalities in crashes in which there was no driver or motorcycle rider present.

2018 Traffic Fatalities by STATE and Percent Change from 2017 - State : Florida


State 2018 2017 Percent Change
Alabama 953 948 1
Alaska 80 79 1
Arizona 1,010 998 1
Arkansas 516 525 -2
California 3,563 3,884 -8
Colorado 632 648 -2
Connecticut 294 281 5
Delaware 111 119 -7
District of Columbia 31 31 0
Florida 3,133 3,116 1
Georgia 1,504 1,540 -2
Hawaii 117 107 9
Idaho 231 245 -6
Illinois 1,031 1,090 -5
Indiana 858 916 -6
Iowa 318 330 -4
Kansas 404 461 -12
Kentucky 724 782 -7
Louisiana 768 770 0
Maine 137 173 -21
Maryland 501 558 -10
Massachusetts 360 347 4
Michigan 974 1,031 -6
Minnesota 381 358 6
Mississippi 664 685 -3
Missouri 921 932 -1
Montana 182 186 -2
Nebraska 230 228 1
Nevada 330 311 6
New Hampshire 147 102 44
New Jersey 564 624 -10
New Mexico 391 380 3
New York 943 1,006 -6
North Carolina 1,437 1,412 2
North Dakota 105 116 -9
Ohio 1,068 1,179 -9
Oklahoma 655 657 0
Oregon 506 439 15
Pennsylvania 1,190 1,137 5
Rhode Island 59 84 -30
South Carolina 1,037 989 5
South Dakota 130 129 1
Tennessee 1,041 1,024 2
Texas 3,642 3,732 -2
Utah 260 273 -5
Vermont 68 69 -1
Virginia 820 839 -2
Washington 546 563 -3
West Virginia 294 304 -3
Wisconsin 588 613 -4
Wyoming 111 123 -10
USA 36,560 37,473 -2
Show more

2018 Traffic Fatalities by COUNTY and Percent Change from 2017 - State : Florida


County 2018 2017 Percent Change
Blank 0 0 0
NOT APPLICABLE (000) 0 0 0
ALACHUA (1) 51 55 -7
BAKER (3) 5 7 -29
BAY (5) 26 29 -10
BRADFORD (7) 9 7 29
BREVARD (9) 85 83 2
BROWARD (11) 237 226 5
CALHOUN (13) 8 1 700
CHARLOTTE (15) 27 27 0
CITRUS (17) 37 31 19
CLAY (19) 19 21 -10
COLLIER (21) 44 23 91
COLUMBIA (23) 21 20 5
DE SOTO (27) 15 15 0
DIXIE (29) 2 4 -50
DUVAL (31) 143 151 -5
ESCAMBIA (33) 66 51 29
FLAGLER (35) 15 33 -55
FRANKLIN (37) 1 1 0
GADSDEN (39) 12 19 -37
GILCHRIST (41) 12 4 200
GLADES (43) 11 13 -15
GULF (45) 4 9 -56
HAMILTON (47) 3 9 -67
HARDEE (49) 8 12 -33
HENDRY (51) 14 9 56
HERNANDO (53) 31 34 -9
HIGHLANDS (55) 20 18 11
HILLSBOROUGH (57) 176 191 -8
HOLMES (59) 5 10 -50
INDIAN RIVER (61) 32 28 14
JACKSON (63) 15 18 -17
JEFFERSON (65) 7 4 75
LAFAYETTE (67) 0 5 -100
LAKE (69) 63 48 31
LEE (71) 94 113 -17
LEON (73) 30 34 -12
LEVY (75) 19 23 -17
LIBERTY (77) 2 3 -33
MADISON (79) 6 2 200
MANATEE (81) 75 54 39
MARION (83) 84 90 -7
MARTIN (85) 23 25 -8
MIAMI_DADE(86) 293 285 3
MONROE (87) 20 18 11
NASSAU (89) 18 18 0
OKALOOSA (91) 27 32 -16
OKEECHOBEE (93) 15 13 15
ORANGE (95) 177 188 -6
OSCEOLA (97) 66 55 20
PALM BEACH (99) 182 162 12
PASCO (101) 99 107 -7
PINELLAS (103) 130 119 9
POLK (105) 123 112 10
PUTNAM (107) 38 26 46
ST JOHNS (109) 34 42 -19
ST LUCIE (111) 41 41 0
SANTA ROSA (113) 23 19 21
SARASOTA (115) 51 49 4
SEMINOLE (117) 36 48 -25
SUMTER (119) 25 23 9
SUWANNEE (121) 20 14 43
TAYLOR (123) 6 13 -54
UNION (125) 3 4 -25
VOLUSIA (127) 106 130 -18
WAKULLA (129) 9 7 29
WALTON (131) 24 21 14
WASHINGTON (133) 10 10 0
OTHER (997) 0 0 0
Not Reported 0 0 0
UNKNOWN (999) 0 0 0
Total 3,133 3,116 1
Show more

2018 Ranking of STATE Pedestrian Fatality Rates - State : Florida

Rank State Pedestrians Killed Population(Thousands) PFR
Rank State
Pedestrians Killed Population (Thousands) PFR
1 New Mexico 83 2,095 3.96
2 Louisiana 164 4,660 3.52
3 Florida 704 21,299 3.31
4 Arizona 237 7,172 3.30
5 South Carolina 165 5,084 3.25
6 Hawaii 42 1,420 2.96
7 Mississippi 88 2,987 2.95
8 Nevada 79 3,034 2.60
9 Georgia 261 10,519 2.48
10 Delaware 23 967 2.38
11 California 893 39,557 2.26
12 Alabama 107 4,888 2.19
13 North Carolina 225 10,384 2.17
14 Texas 612 28,702 2.13
15 Maryland 128 6,043 2.12
16 Arkansas 62 3,014 2.06
17 Tennessee 136 6,770 2.01
18 New Jersey 173 8,909 1.94
19 Oregon 80 4,191 1.91
20 Alaska 14 737 1.90
21 Indiana 114 6,692 1.70
22 Connecticut 60 3,573 1.68
23 Kentucky 73 4,468 1.63
24 District of Columbia 11 702 1.57
25 Colorado 89 5,696 1.56
26 Missouri 95 6,126 1.55
27 Pennsylvania 197 12,807 1.54
28 Oklahoma 60 3,943 1.52
29 Michigan 142 9,996 1.42
30 Montana 15 1,062 1.41
31 Virginia 118 8,518 1.39
32 Washington 102 7,536 1.35
33 New York 262 19,542 1.34
34 Illinois 165 12,741 1.30
35 Nebraska 24 1,929 1.24
36 West Virginia 22 1,806 1.22
37 Utah 36 3,161 1.14
38 South Dakota 10 882 1.13
39 Massachusetts 78 6,902 1.13
40 Ohio 127 11,689 1.09
41 Wyoming 6 578 1.04
42 Kansas 29 2,912 1.00
43 Idaho 17 1,754 0.97
44 Wisconsin 56 5,814 0.96
45 Vermont 6 626 0.96
46 North Dakota 6 760 0.79
47 Minnesota 42 5,611 0.75
48 Iowa 22 3,156 0.70
49 New Hampshire 9 1,356 0.66
50 Rhode Island 7 1,057 0.66
51 Maine 7 1,338 0.52
USA 6,283 327,167 1.92
Show more
1 New Mexico
83 2,095 3.96
2 Louisiana
164 4,660 3.52
3 Florida
704 21,299 3.31
4 Arizona
237 7,172 3.30
5 South Carolina
165 5,084 3.25
6 Hawaii
42 1,420 2.96
7 Mississippi
88 2,987 2.95
8 Nevada
79 3,034 2.60
9 Georgia
261 10,519 2.48
10 Delaware
23 967 2.38
11 California
893 39,557 2.26
12 Alabama
107 4,888 2.19
13 North Carolina
225 10,384 2.17
14 Texas
612 28,702 2.13
15 Maryland
128 6,043 2.12
16 Arkansas
62 3,014 2.06
17 Tennessee
136 6,770 2.01
18 New Jersey
173 8,909 1.94
19 Oregon
80 4,191 1.91
20 Alaska
14 737 1.90
21 Indiana
114 6,692 1.70
22 Connecticut
60 3,573 1.68
23 Kentucky
73 4,468 1.63
24 District of Columbia
11 702 1.57
25 Colorado
89 5,696 1.56
26 Missouri
95 6,126 1.55
27 Pennsylvania
197 12,807 1.54
28 Oklahoma
60 3,943 1.52
29 Michigan
142 9,996 1.42
30 Montana
15 1,062 1.41
31 Virginia
118 8,518 1.39
32 Washington
102 7,536 1.35
33 New York
262 19,542 1.34
34 Illinois
165 12,741 1.30
35 Nebraska
24 1,929 1.24
36 West Virginia
22 1,806 1.22
37 Utah
36 3,161 1.14
38 South Dakota
10 882 1.13
39 Massachusetts
78 6,902 1.13
40 Ohio
127 11,689 1.09
41 Wyoming
6 578 1.04
42 Kansas
29 2,912 1.00
43 Idaho
17 1,754 0.97
44 Wisconsin
56 5,814 0.96
45 Vermont
6 626 0.96
46 North Dakota
6 760 0.79
47 Minnesota
42 5,611 0.75
48 Iowa
22 3,156 0.70
49 New Hampshire
9 1,356 0.66
50 Rhode Island
7 1,057 0.66
51 Maine
7 1,338 0.52
USA
6,283 327,167 1.92
Show more
Note: NHTSA estimates alcohol involvement when alcohol test results are unknown. Total includes fatalities in crashes in which there was no driver or motorcycle rider present.

2018 Ranking of COUNTY Pedestrian Fatality Rates - State : Florida

Rank County Pedestrians Killed Population(Thousands) PFR
Rank County
Pedestrians Killed Population (Thousands) PFR
1 ALACHUA (1) 10 - -
2 BAKER (3) 1 - -
3 BAY (5) 7 - -
4 BRADFORD (7) 2 - -
5 BREVARD (9) 13 - -
6 BROWARD (11) 71 - -
7 CALHOUN (13) 0 - -
8 CHARLOTTE (15) 5 - -
9 CITRUS (17) 5 - -
10 CLAY (19) 6 - -
11 COLLIER (21) 6 - -
12 COLUMBIA (23) 4 - -
13 DE SOTO (27) 1 - -
14 DIXIE (29) 0 - -
15 DUVAL (31) 34 - -
16 ESCAMBIA (33) 23 - -
17 FLAGLER (35) 2 - -
18 FRANKLIN (37) 0 - -
19 GADSDEN (39) 1 - -
20 GILCHRIST (41) 1 - -
21 GLADES (43) 0 - -
22 GULF (45) 0 - -
23 HAMILTON (47) 0 - -
24 HARDEE (49) 1 - -
25 HENDRY (51) 3 - -
26 HERNANDO (53) 5 - -
27 HIGHLANDS (55) 0 - -
28 HILLSBOROUGH (57) 52 - -
29 HOLMES (59) 0 - -
30 INDIAN RIVER (61) 4 - -
31 JACKSON (63) 4 - -
32 JEFFERSON (65) 1 - -
33 LAFAYETTE (67) 0 - -
34 LAKE (69) 10 - -
35 LEE (71) 22 - -
36 LEON (73) 8 - -
37 LEVY (75) 3 - -
38 LIBERTY (77) 0 - -
39 MADISON (79) 1 - -
40 MANATEE (81) 12 - -
41 MARION (83) 10 - -
42 MARTIN (85) 1 - -
43 MIAMI_DADE(86) 106 - -
44 MONROE (87) 2 - -
45 NASSAU (89) 1 - -
46 OKALOOSA (91) 6 - -
47 OKEECHOBEE (93) 1 - -
48 ORANGE (95) 55 - -
49 OSCEOLA (97) 9 - -
50 PALM BEACH (99) 40 - -
51 PASCO (101) 18 - -
52 PINELLAS (103) 37 - -
53 POLK (105) 22 - -
54 PUTNAM (107) 6 - -
55 ST JOHNS (109) 8 - -
56 ST LUCIE (111) 6 - -
57 SANTA ROSA (113) 2 - -
58 SARASOTA (115) 6 - -
59 SEMINOLE (117) 6 - -
60 SUMTER (119) 5 - -
61 SUWANNEE (121) 2 - -
62 TAYLOR (123) 0 - -
63 UNION (125) 0 - -
64 VOLUSIA (127) 30 - -
65 WAKULLA (129) 1 - -
66 WALTON (131) 2 - -
67 WASHINGTON (133) 4 - -
Total 704 - -
Show more
1 ALACHUA (1)
10 - -
2 BAKER (3)
1 - -
3 BAY (5)
7 - -
4 BRADFORD (7)
2 - -
5 BREVARD (9)
13 - -
6 BROWARD (11)
71 - -
7 CALHOUN (13)
0 - -
8 CHARLOTTE (15)
5 - -
9 CITRUS (17)
5 - -
10 CLAY (19)
6 - -
11 COLLIER (21)
6 - -
12 COLUMBIA (23)
4 - -
13 DE SOTO (27)
1 - -
14 DIXIE (29)
0 - -
15 DUVAL (31)
34 - -
16 ESCAMBIA (33)
23 - -
17 FLAGLER (35)
2 - -
18 FRANKLIN (37)
0 - -
19 GADSDEN (39)
1 - -
20 GILCHRIST (41)
1 - -
21 GLADES (43)
0 - -
22 GULF (45)
0 - -
23 HAMILTON (47)
0 - -
24 HARDEE (49)
1 - -
25 HENDRY (51)
3 - -
26 HERNANDO (53)
5 - -
27 HIGHLANDS (55)
0 - -
28 HILLSBOROUGH (57)
52 - -
29 HOLMES (59)
0 - -
30 INDIAN RIVER (61)
4 - -
31 JACKSON (63)
4 - -
32 JEFFERSON (65)
1 - -
33 LAFAYETTE (67)
0 - -
34 LAKE (69)
10 - -
35 LEE (71)
22 - -
36 LEON (73)
8 - -
37 LEVY (75)
3 - -
38 LIBERTY (77)
0 - -
39 MADISON (79)
1 - -
40 MANATEE (81)
12 - -
41 MARION (83)
10 - -
42 MARTIN (85)
1 - -
43 MIAMI_DADE(86)
106 - -
44 MONROE (87)
2 - -
45 NASSAU (89)
1 - -
46 OKALOOSA (91)
6 - -
47 OKEECHOBEE (93)
1 - -
48 ORANGE (95)
55 - -
49 OSCEOLA (97)
9 - -
50 PALM BEACH (99)
40 - -
51 PASCO (101)
18 - -
52 PINELLAS (103)
37 - -
53 POLK (105)
22 - -
54 PUTNAM (107)
6 - -
55 ST JOHNS (109)
8 - -
56 ST LUCIE (111)
6 - -
57 SANTA ROSA (113)
2 - -
58 SARASOTA (115)
6 - -
59 SEMINOLE (117)
6 - -
60 SUMTER (119)
5 - -
61 SUWANNEE (121)
2 - -
62 TAYLOR (123)
0 - -
63 UNION (125)
0 - -
64 VOLUSIA (127)
30 - -
65 WAKULLA (129)
1 - -
66 WALTON (131)
2 - -
67 WASHINGTON (133)
4 - -
Total
704 - -
Show more
Note: NHTSA estimates alcohol involvement when alcohol test results are unknown. Total includes fatalities in crashes in which there was no driver or motorcycle rider present.
Take the Florida Defensive Driving Course Online

Take the Florida Defensive Driving Course Online

Get Started
Leading provider of online defensive driving courses.